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These women are seen as open to more international influences, namely European modernism, through their interest in translations Yet these women writers were denounced by feminism's first authors, who threw literature and its compromising structures out. Adalgisa Giorgio, in "The Novel, ," focuses on how the writing in her time frame "parallels the shift in Italian feminism from the political phase of emancipation and reality to the more cultural phase of affirming female difference in the imaginary psychic and symbolic linguistic and intellectual structures of society" Starting with Francesca Sanvitale, Maria Corti, and Alice Ceresa as writers who launched an inquiry into the role of gender in literature as well as the theme of female genealogies, Giorgio also includes writers from the s, thus making this essay a much needed supplement to the one done by this reviewer 11 years ago "From Margins to Mainstream: Some Perspectives on Women and Literature in Italy in the s," Contemporary Women Writers in Italy: A Modern Renaissance, ed.

Catherine O'Brien divides women poets into three major groups: those influenced by symbolism, those influenced by the hermetic movement, and finally those who "have advanced the case of women's poetry by achieving equality and recognition," although their work does not differ thematically or stylistically from that of their male counterpart The collection closes with Sharon Wood's essay on critical theory, which "seeks to place women's thinking about contemporary aesthetics and cultural practice, theoretical considerations on women and literature, and by necessary extension on women and language, within a historical or philosophical context" Since Wood dealt with these issues in Italian Women Writers, there might have been more of an advantage here if she had tried to outline some of the new directions for criticism and theory that these essays, with their wealth of information, have now made possible.

The few misspellings and bibliographical omissions e. The genre and time divisions work well to show the diversity in women's writings across the ages as well as to highlight the recurring similarities in themes and cultural debates. And the information included here makes it possible for future scholars to realize the volume's goal, which is, in Wood's words, to "not only rewrite the history of Italian women's writing, but to reshape our reading of Italian literature itself" Carol Lazzaro-Weis, Southern University. La scrittura e l'interpretazione.

Palermo: Palumbo, These two tomes comprise the second half of Luperini and Cataldi's work, of which the first two volumes cover Italian literary history respectively up to and from the Counter-Reformation. The last years are thus accorded as much space as the previous six centuries. This reflects escalating literary productivity, but also privileges modernity and contemporary relevance, to the extent, for instance, that not much less space is given to "il classico del secolo" Montale 41 pages , than to Petrarch 43 pages.

This is partly the effect of not very closely considering earlier Italian literature written in Latin, but more largely springs from the pedagogical intent of the work, which is implicitly aimed at students in the licei and in the early years of university. For these, it is an excellent guide, and it will also be extremely useful to their teachers and, indeed, to academics wishing to home in or update rapidly on unfamiliar areas, as well as presenting a reader-friendly introduction to the general lover of Italian literature.

For such pedagogical and informative purposes, it is admirably laid out. Each "Part", covering a historical period, opens with a long chapter mapping out broad socio-economic, intellectual and cultural developments in the western world and in Italy. The subsequent chapters respectively cover literary movements and debates within the same period, followed by each of the main literary sectors - poetry, narrative, discursive writing, and theatre. For each sector, there is a gradual zoom-in from developments in Europe and the Americas to those in Italy.

Major non-Italian writers - Baudelaire or Tolstoy, T.

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Eliot or Kafka - as well as all the major Italian writers have an individual chapter devoted to them, and there are also primi piani - chapters devoted to individual works of outstanding importance, whether Italian or not. Approximately a third of the text is thus given over to things other than Italian literature, in keeping with the principle enunciated in the introduction to the whole work, that Italian literature must be seen in the context of western culture generally, especially now that the role of the "national" literature in shaping the Italian nation-state has been historically superseded.

This cultural contextualization is aided by rich pictorial and photographic illustration in somewhat muted colours , but popular or mass culture is referred to mainly as a threat to "high" literature and culture. The work's pedagogical project is also furthered by numerous chronological tables and explanatory windows of schede e informazioni on historical and cultural phenomena , passato e presente on shifting debates , itinerario linguistico on specific terms , testi e studi bibliographies.

There is a single index of these for the whole work, as also of titles, whereas personal names are indexed separately in each volume. The work as a whole is thus very close to being the hard copy of a hypertext which could be made available in the electronic medium with a much more powerful system of cross-referencing by key terms. However, these take the reader to useful but limited micro-essays on the topic concerned, and do not bring together very many of the writers or works that deal, say, with the Great War, or industry, or psychoanalysis.

There is no lead to women in Italian literature though there are some useful discussions, e. Likewise, there is no lead to interesting topics such as the figure of the impiegato, clerk or scrivener, or Darwinism, though, again, these topics are usefully discussed in connexion with specific authors including Bersezio, De Marchi, Svevo, and Tozzi for the former and Verga, De Roberto, Fogazzaro, and Svevo for the latter.

Other topics not indexed include: the South, Naples, Sicily, Regionalism. For a ready but more demanding approach to such dimensions, the student will still have to resort to the Einaudi Letteratura Italiana directed by Alberto Asor Rosa. The two tomes reviewed here are divided into four parts 11 to 14 , taking the account from Unification to , then to , next to , and then on to the present.

The periodization is validated in cultural and literary terms Naturalism and Symbolism; the avant-gardes; "Ermetismo, Antinovecentismo e Neorealismo"; and Experimentalism, Neo-Avantgardes and the Postmodern , but predicated in terms of developments in the world economy and successive industrial revolutions and class transformations. Thus the year is the only one of the chronological divides in this periodization since Unification which also coincides with major events of political history.

The perspectives and emphases are usually powerful and interesting, though, curiously, the period from to is cosily assigned to "peaceful coexistence," with little hint of the arms race or M. The authors take joint responsibility for the whole text, with Cataldi being the main author for the chapters on poetry and poets though he also takes on Gadda, while Luperini does Montale , while the chapters on non-Italian and some Italian subjects are the work of other specialists.

The negative perspective climaxes in the last major close-up of a writer, devoted to Pasolini and also done by Cataldi. Given that Pasolini died in , there is a chronological paradox in treating him so close to the end of a work that brings us right up to date. Placing Pasolini in one of the last chapters appears to be justified by assigning him to the category of public intellectual and discursive writer - of which he is presented as a highly suspect, ambiguous, and somewhat histrionic and self-advertising exemplar.

While this is not in itself simply wrong, it seems to serve the purpose of signalling a critical emptiness in Italian intellectual life, and masks the inadequate treatment given of Pasolini as poet, novelist and playwright his film-making being less pertinent to a history of literature. A straightforward concluding chapter on the present scenario in Italian writing might have been a better option.

It might also have occasioned a discussion as to whether belletristic writing has - perhaps temporarily - been ousted from its once central position as arbiter of values by more specialized writing in philosophy and the social sciences, economics and the natural sciences, or how it may cope with the tide of consumerism. This does not amount to an objection, however, against the quality, value, and usefulness of this work by Luperini and Cataldi and their colleagues. The skill with which the work as a whole is planned and the information and discussion contained in its component parts are presented, is generally admirable.

There is a certain amount of repetition, expanding a concept sometimes up to three times in the treatment of a major author or work, but this can be accepted as part of the pedagogical imperative; and there are occasional inaccuracies for instance, the persistent myth that Svevo became a bank clerk because of his father's financial difficulties.

But these are very slight blemishes in a generally imposing work. Many of the primi piani have striking analyses and theses. Luperini's study of the chronotope of La bufera is one example. Petroni's study of transgressive freedom in La coscienza di Zeno is another. In keeping with the character of the work as a literary history, and the aim stated in the introduction of tracing the shifts and changes in the literary canon and the role of reading practices hence the "interpretazione" in the title , there is always a strong focus on literary movements and debates and on the overall movement consistently downward, it would seem in the status of writing and of the writer.

This can lead to interesting chronological displacements. Thus the more "modern" Svevo is placed later than his younger but less advanced contemporaries, d'Annunzio and Pirandello. This is a particular instance or three instances of a fully defensible revision of the canon compared to, say, half a century ago, and, indeed, it goes a great deal further.

Luperini's and Cataldi's - and most people's - view of the Italian literary pantheon of the first half of the last century would be unrecognizable in Alfredo Galletti's Il Novecento of the old Vallardi series. Where now is the epic poetry of Ettore Cozzani? It rightly goes unmentioned by Luperini and Cataldi, while the accademico d'Italia Alfredo Panzini gets no more than a dismissive aside. One might perhaps only remark that more might have been offered in a work of this type on the reading public and its tastes as is done occasionally, e.

This leads to a more problematical consideration. Heedless of Gramsci, Luperini and Cataldi take a line similar to Spinazzola's regarding popular literature, which is dismissed as merely consumeristic. Thus, no attention is paid to Guareschi or Fallaci, who have been among the most widely read of Italian writers, both inside and outside Italy. They are implicitly excluded from "the literary". Even works such as Il gattopardo and writers such as Bassani are belittled, with less than justice done to the debates that have surrounded them. This aristocratic exclusiveness is most massively evident in the treatment of women writers, who are given little space.

Even if a claim could be sustained which I do not concede that as individual writers Italian women rank low in the literary league-table, there is at least a case for assessing their collective contribution as a category and the feminist critique whether explicit or oblique which they mount against the male hegemony. Although, early on, we read: "Il progetto di emancipazione femminile [ Other omissions seem less significant in a work that cannot possibly aim at exhaustive comprehensiveness.

Gallina and Bertolazzi do get usefully, if briefly, discussed, but we need not be surprised at not finding Pompeo Bettini, or even Ettore Cantoni, while the job of selection of course becomes harder still with the numerous writers that have surfaced in the last quarter of a century. This guide is, I think, a must for the library of every university that has students of Italian, and is a good buy also for serious individual students and teachers.

A Life in Works. New Haven: Yale UP, The most striking feature of this brilliantly structured volume is Hollander's ability to condense, in an erudite and at the same time communicative manner, the complexities surrounding Dante's works, their genesis, and dating. While not taking anything for granted and not assuming any preconceptions of Dante's production on the part of the reader, Hollander embarks upon a journey of discovery in which the two main fils rouges can be identified as the following: Dante's experimentalism, and the way in which the so-called minor works prepare the path for writing the Commedia and contribute to understanding it.

If we are to accept, as Hollander does, Petrocchi's dating for the Paradiso ; and if we respect the internal evidence provided by Monarchia In fact, Dante's masterpiece incorporates elements of his writings that had appeared, albeit in varying degrees, at times because of their interruption, in his early works Vita nuova, Convivio, De vulgari Eloquentia or his later output, mainly in Monarchia. Hollander follows the unfolding of such production through a series of approaches that are stimulating and challenging for both the uninitiated and those who, although not daring to call themselves Dante scholars, are reasonably familiar with Dante's oeuvre.

One such approach is evident from the very first pages, where Hollander highlights the importance of the Vita nuova and Dante's experimentalism by looking also at the poems that the author eventually did not include in his first major work; among those poems, one should certainly pay attention to the series of poems Dante exchanged with Dante da Maiano, in which casuistic love is analysed.

The figure of Beatrice in the Vita nuova is evidenced by Hollander in a chapter rich with scholarly exegesis and cross references to other scholars' contributions. Particularly essential are the notes in this and subsequent chapters, since they not only contain a plethora of information but are also an invaluable up-to-date bibliographical resource. Hollander does not shun tackling some of the more contentious issues, such as that regarding the donna gentile and the function of consolation for Dante's loss of Beatrice, both in verse VN 38, v.

The connection is anticipated with a discussion of Dante's "meravigliosa visione" , which finds a parallel in the context expressed by the "quasi rapito" of Convivio Thus, chronologically, Hollander turns to the incomplete Convivio, where, as in the Vita nuova, prose and poetry combine to express the author's ideas. The question of style, which anticipates the digression on the historical validity of a work of fiction in Inferno 16, is certainly of paramount importance, and Hollander treats it also by referring to Purgatorio 24 ca.

At that juncture, Dante looks back from this vantage point and declares that his "style" began when he composed "Donne ch'avete," around Hollander sustains that this declaration "makes it clear that there was no group of poets who adopted the style before that time - if there was such a group at all. XXIV, 58 was, in his opinion, a fellow practitioner" Following the chronological order, Hollander takes into consideration first Convivio 1; and, before looking at the remaining three books, he focuses on the question of style that Dante raises in the De vulgari Eloquentia.

Convivio 1 represents an introductory treatise to what Dante intended to be an encyclopedic work, and its second part ties in with his defense of the Italian vernacular, which will constitute the backbone of the De vulgari Eloquentia. Books 2 and 3 of the Convivio confirm that the treatise was composed for a reader well acquainted with the Vita nuova, while only Convivio 4 broaches the relatively new subject of nobility.

In line with his approach to Dante as an experimentalist, but also as a reviser, a re-shaper of early formulations, Hollander concludes: "The prose of the Vita nuova supplies meanings for some of the earlier poems themselves; the prose of the Convivio does so still in more striking manner; Convivio and De vulgari Eloquentia approach the question of language from apparently different or even contradictory positions; the Comedy frequently engages its precursors in the continuing process of growth and self-definition" On the second page of this volume, Hollander had spoken of the "telling presence in Inferno I of phrases found in Convivio IV"; a section of the chapters on Convivio elaborates on the way that the Commedia corrects some of the positions assumed in Convivio.

In his treatment of the Commedia Hollander opts for a series of themes - truth and poetry, allegory, the moral situation of the reader, the moral order of the afterworld, politics, the poetry of the Commedia - inviting the reader to revisit the three cantiche with an investigating tool sharpened by a series of insights and cross-references to the works already viewed, and with an eye to the final section on Monarchia. Among the themes that Hollander pursues, three sections are reserved to Dante's three guides, who guide him through the afterworld.

In relation to Virgil, Hollander returns to the question of style and to the fact that the reading of the Aeneid strongly influenced Dante's notion of poetry. Hence derives Dante's belief that only a poetic work of considerable magnitude could attain poetic recognition, while also satisfying the poet's need to express himself on a variety of topics and to introduce a myriad of characters. We know, in fact, that previous works Vita nuova and Convivio had been characterized by a mix of poetry and prose.

In Hollander's treatment, of particular interest is the linking of Virgil with tragedy Inf. In relation to Beatrice, Hollander analyzes first her role in the Vita nuova and then, in the Commedia, her new role as a moral preceptor until she completes her task and returns to her place of glory in Heaven Par.

The last section on Monarchia, preceded by the thematic elucidation on politics and a very succinct but comprehensive note on the Epistles, brings the volume full circle to the final part on the Latin works. A very well organized index facilitates the consultation of works and references contained in the notes. The text of Hollander's volume is arranged in such a way as to satisfy both the reader who is stimulated into a quick consultation of the passage under discussion, and the one who is prepared to undertake more extensive research by referring to the bibliographical references given in the notes.

Bruno Ferraro, University of Auckland. Patrick Boyde. Dante scholars have appreciated Boyde's outstanding scholarship over a number of years; this volume is somewhat the completion of a trilogy on Dante's poetry and thought - a trilogy started with Dante Philomythes and Philosopher: Man in the Cosmos and Perception and Passion in Dante's Comedy - but it does not take anything for granted and each section of the book takes the reader methodically first through the authors on which Dantes relied for 'moral' guidance and secondly through the application of such thoughts in the Comedy.

A further fil rouge of the volume, which confers organic unit to the many sections and adds a circular sense to the entire work, is the theme of the quest, symbolised by Ulysses, who is mentioned in the opening chapter and who is the subject of a close and perspicacious study in the closing stages of the volume; indeed the very title of the book is derived from Inferno XXVI 99 "e delli vizi umani e del valore". After a panoramic survey of the authors on whose works Dante draws for moral inspiration or guidance - Homer, Plato, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Virgil, Boethius, Cicero and others - Boyde focuses on Aristotle; not before having pointed out, however, that the explanation of the principles underlying the classification of sins in Hell which we find in Canto XI owes as much to Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics as to Roman Law.

Chapter two is devoted to "the reading of a representative scholastic quaestio" 25 and it ends with Dante's metaphorical celebration of a 'quest' for knowledge, hence the importance and relevance of Ulysses. Boyde chooses an article from the Summa Theologiae by St Thomas Aquinas, to whom Dante assigns a major speaking role in the Paradiso, to illustrate the structure of the quaestio on happiness; such exercise leads to an insight in the way Dante introduces syllogistic forms in the opening passages of the Convivio, privileging a free combination of ratio and auctoritas, and in Monarchia, where Book III in particular shows Dante's delight in the use of syllogistic form.

It is here that we find vividly stated Dante's love for truth; it is the human quest for true and certain knowledge that Dante will highlight in the Comedy, which can also be viewed as a journey to God and, symbolically, to the understanding of love. With symbols comes also the function and importance of numbers in the Comedy - three, four, seven, ten and twelve, just to mention a few - and of the hierarchical positioning of the many components which belie order, an order which stems from God.

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Dante's two extended metaphors of fronds on the tree, as described in the first canto of the Paradiso, are visually brought out by The Tree of the Vices and The Tree of the Virtues, which are reproduced from an English Psalter for Robert of Lisle in the years in which Dante was writing the Purgatorio, and which are the illustrations of the dust cover of the volume. In the second part of the volume Boyde carries out a detailed analysis of the content of Dante's ethical thought; this is done by focusing on the distinction between the philosophical and religious texts of the authors who concerned themselves with "human vices and human worth.

Chapter five looks at the Christian values trough Dante's eyes and proceeds with an investigation into the concept of gentilezza, a word which does not occur either in the Bible or in Aristotle. Boyde tightens the argumentation on the concept of gentilezza in Dante by relating it also to Aristotle's account of moral virtue and interpreting it as "a seed of happiness planted by God" After having illustrated the predominantly positive concepts goodness, happiness, virtue , Boyde devotes a chapter each to the two 'arch-vices' responsible for all wrong-doing: covetousness and pride.

Starting with the etymology of cupidigia and proceeding with an exemplification of its many facets in the Comedy, Boyde highlights Dante's repulsion towards those who have embodied this vice; a repulsion which is fundamental in Dante's ethics as can be seen in the last chapter of his Monarchia. Likewise, for the medieval Christian, superbia was the 'beginning of all sin' and Dante upholds this in the Farinata episode Inf. X , continuing his analysis of pride also in the encounters with Capaneus Inf.

This last character is situated in the canto preceding that of Ulysses, to whom Boyde devotes the last chapter of this volume. Boyde forewarns the conclusions to his book when he states how "difficult it is to separate the negative and positive elements in the character of a person with 'high self-esteem,' and how impossible was the thirteenth-century dream of reconciling the different ethical insights and values celebrated by Dante's authors" A chapter on justice, in which Boyde focuses on the literal and metaphorical meanings of the term justitia with textual reference to the episode of Rhipeus Par.

XIX , provides a poignant transition to the Ulysses chapter, a chapter that takes the form of a detailed case-study in which Boyde brings together, by applying them to the text of Canto XXVI, the many approaches, categories and themes so far discussed. Boyde states that Ovid's narration in Metamorphoses XIV provides a greater source of inspiration for Dante than Virgil's episode in Book II, where Ulysses is presented unfavorably and his name is linked with deception.

Dante had no direct knowledge of the Odyssey and learnt of Ulysses also from his reading of two passages in Horace's works where Ulysses is presented in a positive light, as per the Odyssey tradition. However, Dante has to come to terms with his own times and with his own ethical attitude towards fraud; the transition from his sources to his times is to be seen in the character of Guido da Montefeltro Inf.

Ulysses is explicitly damned for the very acts of deception of which Ovid's Ulysses had been proud" Dante, therefore, condemns Ulysses despite the fact that the author identifies himself with the figure of Ulysses, as it is evident in Purgatorio XXX in the course of his confession to Beatrice. The ten chapters of the volume, subdivided into four parts, are accompanied by invaluable notes and an extremely well organized bibliography.

Perhaps the only small blemish in the book - a typographical oversight: "Dante himself did not study make a formal study [ A final index facilitates the consultation of themes, personages and texts in Boyde's volume. Eugenio L.


Costa Smeralda Magazine - Inverno 2008

Giusti, Dall'amore cortese alla comprensione. Studi e ricerche. Giusti riesce ad argomentare persuasivamente una tesi interpretativa che interessa ben dieci opere boccacciane: Caccia di Diana, Filostrato, Filocolo, Teseida, Commedia delle ninfe fiorentine, Amorosa visione, Ninfale fiesolano, Elegia di madonna Fiammetta, Corbaccio e Decameron.

I, pp. La riflessione scaturisce da una accurata analisi delle dinamiche narrative, specola privilegiata della ricerca. Negando la regola del segreto, alla quale, in accordo alla logica cortese, ogni perfetto amante doveva sottostare, la nobildonna napoletana, attraverso il medium del libro, riesce a rompere l'isolamento cui Eros l'aveva costretta e cerca nella comunicazione scritta una panacea per il mal di cuore.

Gli elementi portati alla riflessione sono tali, a mio giudizio, da consentire di affiancare alla interpretazione "ideologica", promossa da Giusti, anche una lettura semiologica. La presenza di figure simboliche Amante - Amore - Libro - Pubblico , riconoscibile quale costante nella produzione boccacciana in esame, testimonia una predilezione, tipicamente medievale, per la prosopopea che appare come rivitalizzata in Boccaccio dall'instaurarsi di rapporti di relazione tra le personificazioni, codificabili all'interno di una precisa teoria della comunicazione letteraria.

A differenza del sodalizio dei fedeli d'amore di ascendenza stilnovistica, nel quale lo scambio tra "emittente" e "destinatario" presupponeva la professione della medesima ideologia erotica cfr. La Vita Nuova di Dante Alighieri, a c. Sono questi i lemmi "comprensione" e "compassione", attorno ai quali ruota l'esegesi decameroniana proposta nel volume Il Decameron: Tra comprensione e compassione Appare invece ancora dedicato alla tematica del "modello negativo", analizzata per la Fiammetta, il capitolo quarto: Il Decameron: chiose al Corbaccio Pur rendendosi evidentemente necessaria una selezione dei materiali da sottoporre al vaglio critico, spiace che i riferimenti alla diegesi delle singole novelle vengano programmaticamente esclusi da Giusti, che limita l'esame alla sola "cornice" del Decameron.

Credo che si debba riconoscere a Giusti il merito di aver saputo significativamente contestualizzare il Proemio del Centonovelle boccacciano all'interno del percorso evolutivo della dinamica erotica del Certaldese. Collocata all'interno dello scambio interpersonale Decameron, Pr. Dalla comprensione della parola appare deterministicamente influenzata l'"operazione" 'azione' dell'uomo nel mondo.

La sfera del reale, da banco di prova della Sacra Scrittura, diventa il campo di verifica, tutto laico, del messaggio dell'opera letteraria; e se la storia narrata ha come protagonista l'"autore" e le sue innumerevoli proiezioni nei "personaggi" , quella vissuta sembra conoscere quale unico arbitro il "lettore". The Chivalric Epic in Medieval Italy. Although Vitullo's careful application of culturalist categories produces fresh insights into the conflicted ideological and linguistic identity that characterizes many of these narratives, her repetition of the same findings and conclusions across the three main sections of the volume renders a number of chapters somewhat predictable.

In the introduction to the volume, Vitullo lays bare her episteme. Drawing upon Stock's Listening for the Text: On the Uses of the Past, Vitullo argues that the incorporation of Carolingian material in Northern Italian epics followed a "traditionalistic" model. This is a model that does not depend upon the passive endorsement of tradition but, rather, is the product of a self-conscious appropriation of selected discourses from the past.

More specifically, for Vitullo, Northern Italian epics employed those elements of Carolingian material that could give stability to the emerging value system of urban patricians. Such appropriation is, of course, most interesting since it reveals how the emerging bourgeois culture of Northern Italian city-states sought legitimacy by incorporating discourses of a receding feudal world. Three separate sections further develop the broader reflections contained in this introduction. In "A Hybrid Genre" she argues that, contrary to traditional interpretations provided by critics such as Rajna, Viscardi, Limentani, Infurna, and Krauss, the eight Carolingian narratives of the Marciano XIII do not present a coherent vision of bourgeois ideology.

Rather, they suggest the conflicting and contested presence of feudal and communal values. Vitullo's claims are not only substantiated by cogent references to a number of historians who have stressed the problematic assimilation of pro-imperial and feudal value systems on the part of bourgeois culture, but also by extensive close readings of epic tales. These include the narratives of Bovo d'Antona and Uggieri, where the diminished role of the king does not entail the subversion of feudal values and the rigid hierarchy upon which these values are predicated.

The chapter concludes by suggesting that the hybridization of the chivalric epic was not confined to the Italian communes, but it is present in a number of late Carolingian epics produced in France, including the narratives of Huon de Bordeaux and Gaydon. In the second chapter of this section, "The Conflicting 'Family Values' of the Marciano XIII Manuscript," Vitullo continues to analyze the problematic assimilation of competing discourses in the epic narratives of the chanson de geste.

Focussing most closely on the issue of gender identification, Vitullo convincingly argues that, as the clan superseded the empire in the determination of social order, the epic genre moved towards an exploration of the threats that the clan was now facing. Such threats often came from within, that is to say, from the betrayal of family members, including women, as in the epics Berta da li pe grandi, Berta e Milon, and Rolandin.

Women's subversion of the power of patriarchal authority also brought a weakening of rigid gender identification and, for Vitullo, paved the way for conflicted discourses about masculinity. These include the monster from the Orient, the wild man as laborer and manual worker, and the woman as warrior. Drawing upon Garber's conceptualization of cross-dressing as a sign of both transgression and containment, from Garber's Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety, Vitullo insightfully analyzes the figure of the monster, from the story of Buovo d'Antona, and of the wild man, from Andrea da Barberino's Le storie nerbonesi.

The chapter concludes by reflecting upon the high frequency of hybrid figures in Italian epics. Endorsing Butler's notion of identity as a construct that needs to be continuously created in order to retain binary oppositions, Vitullo finds that the extensive presence of cultural cross-dressers in the epic was ultimately a tool to reinforce traditional boundaries. The second chapter of this section is devoted to the genderization of the male subject as revealed in the enfance narrative of late Medieval epics.

They dramatize how young men can achieve a masculine identity only if queer sexuality, associated both with the Orient as well as with the absence of physical labor in the mercantile economy of Tuscany, is overcome. In general, this chapter contains very sound arguments. However, since it not only addresses issues closely related to the preceding discussion on hybrid identities, but arrives at analogous conclusions, it is this reader's belief that it should have been integrated within a broader examination of strategies of subversion and containment. While the first two sections are firmly focussed on the conflicting ideologies of class and gender, the last section of the book, titled "Discursive Rivalries: The Case of Ugo d'Alvernia," explores how tensions are also manifested in other aspects of the epics.

These aspects include the means of textual transmission i. Choosing, as her main exhibit, the narrative Ugo d'Alvernia, by da Barberino, Vitullo detects a number of elements that are closely associated with literacy and with the written documentation of the emerging bureaucracy of the urban patricians. However, Vitullo also identifies residues from oral narration that reveal da Barberino's desire to seek the legitimacy of tradition.

As for the tension between chivalry and classicism, Vitullo develops an interesting comparison between Dante's relationship to the figures from the pre-Christian world and da Barberino's account of those same figures. This is an account that is the site of conflicts, revealing, once again, da Barberino's will to both appropriate and distance himself from the classical world. A brief epilogue, titled "The Pleasure of Reading and the Power of the Text," retraces the broader findings of the work and also accounts for the demise of the chivalric epic in the context of humanist literary culture.

An interesting and accessible volume, Vitullo's The Chivalric Epic in Medieval Italy exemplifies how the careful application of contemporary cultural theory can not only provide fresher alternatives to traditional approaches to Medieval texts, but can generate new insights into the troubled architecture of Carolingian epics. For this reason, it is a valuable reading for both scholars and students of Medieval culture. Nonetheless, as I have suggested in my preceding paragraphs, this volume has a tendency to repeat the same findings and conclusions.

Hence, it is this reader's belief that a subtler handling of the central hypothesis would have prevented the predictability of several chapters, thereby increasing the pleasure of reading. Ronsard, Petrarch, and the Amours. Gainesville: U P of Florida, Sturm-Maddox convincingly argues that the relation between Petrarch's and Ronsard's poetry goes well beyond the linguistic and stylistic aspects; the French poet's imitative practice "emerges at the level of the collection as a whole" 3.

We should begin by recognizing that this monograph stands out for its scope. Nor should we underestimate the novelty of this approach in the field of French literary studies. Admittedly, Sturm-Maddox borrows her critical outlook from Stephen Greenblatt's concept of "self-fashioning," which links a writer's textual production to the social, political, and cultural undercurrents of the time. Needless to say, for Ronsard, the poet after whose persona he wanted to model his own was Petrarch.

Ecco una nuova raccolta di immagini per augurare il buon giorno ai vostri cari con unaforisma o una frase simpatica. Le ali di Milano. Buon giorno.

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Mi piace: 1,9 mln. Loading Unsubscribe from polpy Tube? Cancel Unsubscribe Buonanotte con le ali del sorriso. I Buongiorno di Whatsapp. Buonanotte con le ali del sorriso. Buongiorno mondo di twitter : buongiorno. Buongiorno Dottore. Vi si trovano notizie dedicate alla moda, bellezza, design, turismo, enogastronomia, ma anche alla salute, nuove tecnologie, cultura e spettacoliRachel McAdams e Harrison Ford in una scena del film.

Frasi Belle per Whatsapp. Per ogni email possono volerci fino a 5 secondi, attendi per favore Altre cartoline di Buongiorno divertente. Insieme o separato? Oppure fai la tua donazione tramite bonifico bancario. Adesso andiamo nel vento ed apriamo le ali infinitypool italy amalficoast rf Play all. The hotel offers a concierge and room service, to make your visit even more pleasant. Buon Compleanno! Happy Birthday! Dopo giorni e giorni di ricerca di un regalo adatto Buon compleanno!

Immagini di buongiorno le ali del sorriso. Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. Il residence le ali del conero offre sistemazioni in appartamento sulla riviera del conero a marcelli di numana. See actions taken by the people who manage and post content. Augura un Tutti noi adoriamo le immagini del buongiorno! Buongiorno A chi ricambia con un sorriso. Benvenuti in immaginibuongiorno. KidzInMind Android and iOS app, offers parents peace of mind with age appropriate educational apps, approved by experts. A: Le ali del sorriso. Le Ali del Frassino.

Le Ali del Frassino is just 1. Scopri e salva i tuoi Pin su Pinterest. Siamo unequipe di dentisti e professionisti giovani e motivati con un obiettivo molto ambizioso: curare la salute dei tuoi denti e della tua bocca per darti una masticazione efficace ed un nuovo sorriso. While immagini buona notte le ali del sorriso may be is so large by months to talk her year.

Le ali del sorriso. Buongiorno Carovigno Grande occasione per Risparmiare Tempo e Denaro con buongiorno tempo amicizia cuore sole affetto sorriso.

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Levico Terme TN. Frasi e immagini per augurare il Buongiorno. Show less. On August , after the settlement of a successful public tender offer, Buongiorno became a wholly owned subsidiary of NTT DoCoMo, a mobile telecommunications technologies and services company. Buonanotte, Spero sia una serena notte e che anche i sogni ti sorridano. Visualizza altre idee su Good morning, Smile e Bonjour.

Oggi 73esimo anniversario della Repubblica Italiana, anche a Modena festa. Lo Studio di Medicina Estetica e Odontoiatria Viso e Sorriso a Verona offre trattamenti estetici per viso, corpo e di Odontoiatria estetica e chirurgica. Frasi di buongiorno, sms di buongiorno, messaggi di buongiorno. Visualizza altre idee su Sorriso, Ali e Decorazioni di natale. Buon fine Settimana. Articolo di. Buongiorno Italia was established in Con l la provincia di massaggi orientali ancona sms molto spinti come farsi notare da un buongiorno sensuale tempo tramite incontri donne marche per scoprire, con.

Il mio obbiettivo:riuscire ad avere tanti mi piace ed entrare nel vostro cuore! Our recipes are simple and tasty, fast and good. Just For Fun. Loading Unsubscribe from Julia Fenty? Le Ali Del Sorriso. Abbiamo quindi selezionato questa raccolta di frasi con immagini da condividere su facebook, whatsapp e tutti i social network per augurare una buona giornata ad amici e parenti. Buongiorno da Positanonews. Racconti Angela -Buongiorno,Alberto - balbettai. Buon Pomeriggio. Un padre. Difficile da capire. Forse capire non si deve. Solo ubbidire si deve.

Ubbidire alla legge. Le dieci leggi. E se il padre ha detto: - Dormi - Laio deve dormire e se il padre dice: - Svegliati. Laio si sveglia. Doveva essere passato molto tempo. Un poco di sole entrava nel fienile e in quel poco sole stava il vecchio, che sorrideva con arguzia: - Alzati. Lo seguiva. Oh, poor flock of mine, what are you doing at the bottom of the sea?

Yesterday, I was the one waiting for you. You wanted me for a son? Love you! Help you cross the meadow. Feed you. Evil God. A father. Obey the law. The Ten Commandments. Time had passed. Outside, under a sky of fluffy clouds sat a crimson cart drawn by white oxen. The old man climbed in and gestured for Laio to sit beside him. They set off, along a wide winding road through the young Rozier. I bovi si mossero.

Laio si meravigliava, il suo compagno rispondeva con un cenno del capo, donne e bambini, misteriosamente avvertiti, uscivano dai casolari per guardarli. Forse qualcuno potrebbe darmi lavoro. Lasciami scendere a chiedergliene. At the first bend in the road, they came out of a grove of pop- lars, and they climbed, surrounded by dwarf vineyards and fields of corn and alfalfa.

Farmers, hearing the cart, stopped their work to see who was going by, and they shielded their eyes from the ever- rising sun, and seeing the old man, they greeted him with humble words of respect and devotion. Laio was surprised; his companion responded with a nod; women and children, somehow aware of their presence, came out of their homes to watch them pass. Maybe one of them might give me work. Let me go ask. Now the fields returned, stretched out in a valley cut by stands of poplars and thickets of cane, here and there, water spar- kling behind them.

The sun was almost in the middle of the sky and the old man slumped over more and more from the heat. Soon they were in a gentle meadow, following a river that flowed from the mountains to the sea, under a sky of the palest green, the air smelling like mint. The shepherd thought of the day before, of Argo and his sheep that drowned, and he covered his eyes with his hands. When he looked again he saw flocks of sheep grazing on pasturelands. Laio stood up in the cart.

He looked to the right, to the left, as though searching, seeing. A dog ran to meet them, and he almost called out, but he stopped and a tear rolled down his face. Let me milk one of these sheep and give you a little milk. Un cane corse loro incontro e lui fece per chiamarlo, ma si trattenne e una lacrima gli scendeva per il volto. Lascia che io munga una di queste pecore e ti dia un poco di latte. I contadini sanno che, da ora in poi, debbono a te chiedere opere, tetto e nutrimento.

Non era per questo che ti ho chiamato padre: non voglio che possa essere per questo. Prendi dunque la guida del carro e sii il padrone, Laio. Mi aveva preso tutto quel che conosceva essere mio. Se fosse venuto a saperlo mi avrebbe ucciso. Ci sono io a difenderti. Portami nella tua casa - e gli volgeva, sereno, una fronte piena di bianca luce. I bovi ripresero lenti il cammino percorso. Laio guardava con Rozier.

Because those flocks are mine, the houses and the farms you saw belong to me. He saw the old man from his dream, and he was frightened. All this belongs to your other son, your flesh and blood, even if he rejected you. Now take the reins, Laio. Drive the cart. He was no longer thinking about his dream, about himself, about the miracle that was happen- ing to him.

He took everything he thought was mine. But I hid most of it away. I wanted to give it to him later as a surprise. I trust you. Now take me to your home. The oxen slowly turned and were on their way again. Deeply moved, Laio stared at the road ahead, at the fields all around, a young man who sees the woman he loves sleeping for the first time, her face tinged with modesty and mischief. The old man was no longer watching the road, the oxen, or all that was his; he was watching his son, his greatest possession. Now, you must use the same care and lead me away from the land and the reasons that make men want to live.

A professional journalist, she lives in Rome where she works for RAI. Anthony Molino is an award-winning translator, anthropolo- gist, and psychoanalyst. Gray Sutherland is the author of five collections of poetry and a novel. In he began translating contemporary Italian poetry into English. Sea and sky are perfect, the dying sun marries them.

Pure volume, lucid height. Yet without islands there is no solace. Born under the plunge of the sun, their frailty, like ours, dies with the light. Their single flaw makes distance real. They are the riddle that solves the night. Before Islands The fret of motion stirs the world to being. It sees hunger, feigns a mouth. Hunger is aloft, an eye, a beak, raging at the sea. All this was before islands, before the first cliff that shouldered up and snagged the sky. Perfetto il mare, perfetto il cielo mentre il sole morente li sposa.

Volume puro, lucido slancio. Il loro solo torto rende vera ogni distanza. Vede la fame, finge una bocca. La fame aleggia, un occhio, un becco, furibondi col mare.

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Keros Gulls describe a cliff weaving it back and forth with the strong thread of a sail A surf of hills makes its lunge against a wilder blue They say a goatherd lives on Keros, or a monk. I like to think he is the harpist who plays the mad music of the wind. The Rehearsal Dawn. A me piace pensare che sia il suonatore di arpa che mette in musica la follia del vento.

Incipit Alba. Gold hastens to the rock. It is all one chord of light struck from the silent gong, rehearsing another day. But whose, you say, the hand that closed that fist? It is no matter. Five-pointed like a star it lies open, generous and its fingers stream infinity— back into stone. The Rival Poet Yours the tree in whose shadow I lie yours the river whose current carries me resistless or resisting to the snagged branch that fishes me Yours the mountain from whose height a boulder crashes through the caverns from black to blacker might toward cataracts of dawn.

How then shall I praise thee? How then shall I not deny thee? Stone by stone, I subtract your temple. Word by word, I rebuild your world. Ma di chi, dirai, la mano che chiuse quel pugno? Non importa. Come, allora, elogiarti? Come, allora, non rinnegarti? Pietra per pietra sottraggo al tuo tempio.

Parola per parola, rifaccio il tuo mondo. You must bring it yourself. A man, too naked for clothing, bestrides an anvil. He has come from a place without beginning and he goes to one without end. We must imagine the rain. He moves through it. It comes from nowhere and goes to nowhere, but the rain, the rain we must bring ourselves. The data are enough. We stare until a tear collects in each eye and then the rain then the rain will fall and nothing we can do will make it stop. Devi portarcela tu. Arriva da un luogo senza inizio e va verso un luogo senza fine. Dobbiamo immaginarcela, la pioggia.

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Viene da nessun dove e da nessuna parte va, ma la pioggia, la pioggia, dobbiamo portarla noi. I dati sono sufficienti. He has pub- lished articles in Italian and in English on medieval, modern and contemporary Italian literature, English and American literature, Italian-American literature, and comparative litera- ture.

Livorni has also published three collections of poems: Prospettiche illusioni Illusions of Perspective , Nel libro che ti diedi. Sonetti In the Book that I gave you. The collec- tion Onora il Padre e la Madre Honor Thy Father and Mother , which gathers previously published and new poems, was released in October Blakesley Livorn.

Non chiedermi calma. Lettera al Padre Eccomi, Padre. Ormai anche il tempo ha ceduto il suo scettro imbiancato e torni, ancestrale figura, o forse son io che percorro la strada. Eccomi, Padre. O Padre! The hour hand lies suspended over your breast: man speaks waiting for death he scratches out segregating syllogisms. Letter to the Father Here I am, Father. By now time has ceded its whitened scepter and you return, ancestral figure, or perhaps it is I who walk along this road.

Father, I was already old when you made me and I am certain that my first cries bit into your chest, like a vision. That crown of dreams, racing down your forehead, still burns you, as if it were ironclad blackmail; tell me, Father, would you ever have overcome the full and complete enchantment of the late moons? Here I am, Father. The night watches you, and sleep, heavier than tears, overwhelms you, and everything that I feel and do breaks like glass.

Father, I followed the fights in vain, and like a raging lion I clawed away at the ice, enchanted by a dissolving vision in my eyes. Oh Father! Ribelle al passato ne sento il fascino come tortura, come passione le vene mi gonfia e certo capisci quel che ti dico. Padre, non vedi che brucio? Soltanto se guardi le mani, vedi ogni dito proteso in cerca, proteso con cura verso ogni grido che forte trionfa dentro le tempie.

Sentii una voce venire dal fondo della tua stanza e dapprima mi parve essere un vento che si sfaldava in un coro di fiati. A rebel against the past, its fascination tortures me; like passion, it swells my veins, and you certainly know what I am telling you. Father, do you not see I am burning? Just look at my hands, you will see every finger stretched out, carefully searching for every cry that loudly triumphs in my temples. Father, every crevice in my mind, like a failed action, repeats an ancient ritual of disgraced generations.

I heard a voice coming from deep in your room and at first it seemed to be a wind crumbling into a chorus of sighs. Father, I feel my guts stolen away, as if I were a child, and it is atrocious to sense once more the dancing breath leaf through the list of my crimes. You, Father, are a necessary evil; now I understand what I saw and one day we will join our faces, when a new child comes, a rebel. Now I am here, and I attend to my rituals and I live each day precariously, risking each day by tempting all the fates: Father, why have you forsaken me?

He has recently begun working as a freelance literary scout and editorial advisor. Baret Magarian was born and raised in London, but he is of Armenian extraction and currently lives in Italy. In London he directed fringe theatre and cabaret. Zibetti and Magarian hope to stage the piece again in in Torino. He can be contacted at this email address: baretbmagarian hotmail. They told me to drive to the guy, the big guy, the boss, the genius, the man who pisses pink champagne, and who craps caviar. I knocked on his door in Lincoln, Nebraska, he handed me the package.

I had to make it all the way to Los Angeles. The final stages of the trip entailed a hypnotized spell in the Mojave desert with its honey mesquite trees and tumbleweeds and cacti and lizards and a blowtorch sun and the unreal skies and the desolation and the cosmic American landscape. Just me, the car, the package, the bottles of Miller beside me offering to lubricate my soul, so long as no cops spotted me as I trailed a blaze of toxic speed, dust clouds blooming around my tires, the smell of gasoline in the wind, taint- ing that pristine nothingness of the desert.

That nothingness was perfect for me because that nothingness was my life. Pressing the gas, driving the machine hard, the wind vacuuming off the dust between the cracks, the elemental tapestries being weaved around me, and for a moment, for a second, it was perfect, the music vibrating, a low hum, the engine purring, the sirotti. Il pezzo grosso, il boss, il genio, quello che piscia champagne rosa e caca caviale. Avevo bussato alla sua porta a Lincoln, Nebraska, e mi aveva dato il pacchetto.

Con quel coso in mano sprigioni un tale calore da inviare in orbita una navicella spaziale. Dunque avevo preso il pacchetto, maneggiandolo con cura manco fosse la versione digitale rimasterizzata della fica di Clau- dia Schiffer. Dovevo arrivare fino a Los Angeles. Davo gas, andavo al massimo. Consciousness seemed to expand in vibrating rings, pulsing out like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The light was fading, the evening was coming. There was no stopping it. I glanced at the package slumped on the back seat.

It was still intact. No ants had eaten into it, gaffer tape squeezed it like bandages round an Egyptian mummy. I pulled up at a desert motel. I needed showering, a bed, some kind of sanctuary for a few hours. Time had decomposed the place. In fact it looked like it had been abandoned years ago. Discarded branches were scattered before its entrance like cigarette butts and the wooden sign that announced it was slanted at an acute angle, hanging from a tall stump of wood, looking like it might decapitate a passing stranger.

The windows were thick with grime. Despite all this the place attracted me and I pulled into the parking lot, where plastic bags stirred in the residual wind. I parked with precision and care, picked up the package. The package was cold to the touch, icy cold. It felt as if it had just been sitting in a freezer.

I got out shakily, cradling the package and walked up to the reception. A large, bovine woman was behind the counter. She made me think of a squashed cream puff. She nodded up from her airport novel and glanced at me without a flicker of interest. She began to write care- fully with a half chewed biro. I clutched the package protectively. La coscienza sembrava espandersi in cerchi vibranti, che sgorgavano pulsanti come il petrolio fuoriuscito nel Golfo del Messico. La luce si smorzava, scendeva la sera.

Inutile provare a fermarla. Lanciai uno sguardo al pacchetto appoggiato sul sedile posteriore. Era ancora integro. Non era stato aggredito dalle formiche, i nastri telati lo strizzavano come bende intorno a una mummia egiziana. Mi fermai a un motel nel deserto. Avevo bisogno di farmi la doccia, di un letto, di qualche ora di ristoro. Il tempo aveva decomposto un luogo che, in effetti, pareva in abbandono da anni. Le finestre erano spesse di sudiciume. Parcheggiai con cura e precisione e raccolsi il pacchetto. Scesi barcol- lando dalla macchina, tenendo il pacco con circospezione e mi avviai alla reception.

Afferrai il pacco con aria protettiva. Could be terrorism. Or could be drugs. You a writer? Payment upfront. Check out 10 am. The master I mentioned at the start. It was his work.

Quando e come usare NE in italiano - When and how to use NE in Italian! - ¡Cómo usar NE en italiano!

His editor was in LA, you see. He types on an old Olivetti, makes a single carbon copy for himself when he types. He has ruled out the computer, the fax, the attachment, the email, this fucker wants his masterpiece to be handed in person to his associate as though it were an aluminum case stuffed with loot. Non ho nulla, a parte il pacco. Per via del terrorismo. O potrebbe esserci la droga. Sono venti dollari per la camera. Pagamento anticipato. Stanza libera entro le dieci. Era opera sua. Il suo editor stava a Los Angeles, tutto qui. Ha messo al bando computer, fax, allegati, e-mail.

He is the Elvis of literature. As I said he craps caviar and he pisses pink champagne. He is as eccentric as Howard Hughes and as classic as a Ferrari. He writes prose of a beauty that makes grown men weep and women squirt. He is the Alpha and the Omega, the final word in Final Words, the Writer whose every phrase gets emblazoned onto the fabric of consciousness as surely as if it were a laser beam. His second, Prototype of Love , was told from the point of view of a pregnant man.

The Sound of Extinction was about meet- ing God who turns out to be this little guy who goes around with a supermarket trolley. The books grew larger and more ambitious. The Philosopher King was set in a remote village in Cyprus whose inhabitants are pig ignorant and primitive. Next came The Millions , a page satire about an agency in New York that specializes in faking alternate lives for people whose own lives are boring and uneventful. The agency produces documents, diplomas, certificates, letters, emails, creates an illustrious, exotic past for those who come knocking at its door.

E io sono il corriere. Poi, un bel giorno, vi prende la residenza uno straniero. Il suo aspetto esotico suscita ogni tipo di dicerie e il paese si divide in due parti: quelli che lo amano e quelli che lo odiano. The fake biographies sabotage the actual until reality itself becomes one vast and bloated invention. The Overhaul chronicled the decline of a wealthy American family over four generations.

The narrative spanned hundreds of years, evoking in hallucinatory detail the Na- tive American genocide, episodes from the American civil War, the assassination of Martin Luther King and the attack on the World Trade Center. What finally emerges is the complete culpability of money. After the midnight celebrations die down he offers the surviving family members port of a rare vintage from a diamond-encrusted decanter. The port has been laced with strych- nine and the whole clan, including Riley, goes into convulsions and asphyxiates. The book garnered tremendous critical acclaim and several death threats and there were rumors that the CIA and the FBI had subsequently opened files on him.

No one knew the subject of his latest novel. No one even knew the title. I wrestled with the key and stepped in. I placed the package carefully on a side table and switched on the lamp. Dirty light, dirty windows. Light, dark. The place was a lousy dump. But it would do. I was exhausted. La verifica registra il declino di una ricca famiglia americana attraverso quattro generazioni. Riley organizza una festa pantagruelica di fine anno trasformando la magione avita in un vortice di ogni esempio concepibile di lussuria e decadenza.

Esauriti i festeggiamenti di mezzanotte, egli offre ai membri su- perstiti della famiglia un porto di una rara annata, mescendolo da una caraffa incastonata di diamanti. Il vino era stato avvelenato con la stricnina e tutto il clan, Riley compreso, ha le convulsioni e muore di asfissia.

Nessuno sapeva neppure il titolo. Armeggiai con la chiave ed entrai in camera. Luce sporca, finestre sporche. Luce, buio. Quel posto era un letamaio, ma avrebbe fatto al caso mio.

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  • Ero sfinito. What lay inside it? What gems and what pearls? Did that package somehow contain the guy? Did it contain his essence? All that was best about him? Was that pack- age, in the final count, more real, more destined for immortality than the man himself? It had been made abundantly clear to me that on no account was I to open it. It had been made digitally clear that if that package were tampered with my balls would be neatly severed from my scrotum.

    I stared hard at the thing. Or maybe what lay in there was no good after all, was just scrambled shit… The motel room was stuffy. I walked over and yanked open a window. I stared outside at nothing, at the barren night, approaching like the onset of a disease, the night of longing and sexual desire and unanswered calls for companionship. Then I took one of those interminable pisses, one of those that last so long that your legs begin to buckle and you have to prop yourself up against the wall with your arms.

    I pulled out a Marlboro and smoked it right down to the tip. I walked back over to the package. It was warm. The damn thing was emanating heat like a computer. What was going on with this package? First it was freezing cold, now it was warm, it was as though the thing had been plugged into an electrical source.

    It seemed as if the package was alive, it seemed to be a living thing. I managed to foil a mad impulse to open it. I was beginning to feel scared. I took the thing over to the cupboard and shoved it inside. I walked out into the corridor and over to my car, opened it up, pulled out the bottles of beer and returned with them and opened one up and took a long gulp. That steadied me a little bit and I spread out on the bed.

    The springs whined in protest. Then I finished off all the beer. Before I knew it I was sleeping. But it was short-lived and I woke up a few hours later. I stared at my watch. It was 2. I switched on the bedside lamp and went over to the cupboard. I touched the package. It was no longer warm and no longer cold. But it was true, the package had been cold, had been hot. It was an insane package, it had been driven mad by its contents, or maybe it was a package that was subject to the freakish extremities of climate change.

    Guardai fisso il pacchetto. Quali perle e gemme di saggezza? Conteneva la sua essenza? La sua parte migliore? Mi era stato abbondantemente spiegato che non avrei dovuto aprirlo per nessuna ragione. Mi era stato chiarito con digitale precisione che se quel pacco fosse stato manomesso mi avrebbero staccato di netto le palle dallo scroto.

    Fissai attonito quel coso. Mi avvicinai alla finestra e la spalancai. Senza risultato. Tirai fuori una Marlboro e la fumai fino al filtro. Poi tornai al pacco. Era caldo. Non scherzo. Quel maledetto coso emanava calore quasi fosse un computer. Che succedeva al pacco? Prima era gelido, ora caldo, come se qualcuno lo avesse infilato in una presa di corrente. Riuscii a trattenere il folle impulso di aprirlo. Cominciavo ad aver paura. Le molle gemettero, contrariate.

    Poi scolai la birra. Prima che me ne rendessi conto, mi addormentai. Ma fu un sonno di breve durata e dopo alcune ore mi svegliai. Erano le due e mezzo. Tastai il pacco. Per un attimo pensai di essermi immaginato le sue alterazioni ter- miche. Ma era vero, il pacco prima era freddo, poi era caldo. Era un pacco pazzo, era il suo contenuto ad avergli fatto perdere il senno, o forse era soggetto ai bizzarri eccessi del cambiamento climatico. It was hard to identify what was making the sound. I glanced out of the window where I found nothing but the parking lot half swal- lowed in the void of night.

    This was the desert. The desert where life existed, but barely, where the only friends to be had were the shadows, rustling like leaves and pattering like leaves on the fringes of consciousness. There was nothing here, not even a yellowing skeleton in the cupboard that might be dragged out and danced with in a last ditch attempt to ward off terminal loneliness.